Tuberculosis

abbreviated TB is a communicable disease that is spread by abacterium referred to as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The diseaseaffects several body organs like kidneys, joints, bones and lymphnodes of the body but the primary organs that are infected are thelungs. Once the disease infects an individual, the symptoms do notsurface immediately, and at this stage, it is called latenttuberculosis. At least 10 percent of the latent tuberculosis progressto active TB and causes the death of about half of the people if nottreated (Wells &amp Long, 2013). The bacterium causing tuberculosisis spread from one individual to another through small droplets thatare released into the atmosphere through coughing and sneezing. TB isso uncommon in the developed economies as compared to developingcountries. However, its emergence began around 1985 attributed by thesurfacing of HIV. The HIV weakens an individual`s immune system, andtherefore the white blood cells (WBC) lack the ability to fight theTB germs. Various countries in the west have put in place quitestrict legislations that control the disease. For example, UnitedStates tuberculosis started to go down again in 1993 but still is anissue of concern (Dyer, 2012)

infects at least two billion out of which three million diesannually. Persons with a strong immune system, the disease has only10 percent chance to reactivate itself progressing to activetuberculosis. The populations who stand a greater chance of infectioninclude the aged, homeless persons, individuals addicted to substanceuse, prisoners, and those infected by HIV (Young, 2014). There arecertain factors which can increase the chances of progressinginactive TB to active TB in an individual. They are neck cancer,kidney diseases, malnutrition, diabetes, steroid use, pregnancy, andradiotherapy among others. There are no symptoms that are associatedwith latent tuberculosis. However, the active tuberculosis is relatedto various signs and complications such as coughing, sweating atnight, chills, chest pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever,shortness of breath, and fatigue (Dyer, 2012).

Ifthe illness spreads beyond the lungs and chest to other parts of thebody, For instance, the lymph nodes. It causes the swelling of glandsunder the armpits and sides of the neckline, and if the bacteriumspreads to the joints and bones patients, experience swelling of theknee joints and hip. Sometimes patients experience certain symptomsassociated with the frequent urination which is painful, and thepresence of blood in the urine (Dyer, 2012). can bediagnosed through a tuberculin skin test which involves an injectionin the forearm. Also, chest x-rays are used to diagnose the illness.Another form which physicians use to diagnose TB is the sampling of aperson`s sputum which is analyzed in a controlled laboratory (Wells &ampLong, 2013).

Sincethe illness is caused and spread by a bacterium, antibiotics are usedin its treatment. The government also initiates quarantine measuresthe moment they point out the infected population to minimize thespread of the bacterium. Common antibiotics that are used includerifampin and ethambutol (Young, 2014). If the disease is persistentor resistant to the treatment of a specific antibiotic, doctorsrecommend a combination of diverse prescription. It is alwaysadvisable to get treatment of tuberculosis the moment its symptomssurface. There is a vaccine available that limits the spread oftuberculosis after infection and it is mostly used in nations whereinfection rate rises above 1 percent. In 2015 approximately 1.4million HIV-negative individuals died from tuberculosis which was adrop from 1.8 million in 2000. In addition to deaths reported in 2015400,000 were from HIV-positive persons (Dyer, 2012).

Tocurb progress of TB in low and middle-income countries will need morethan the control programs, diagnostics and treatment of the diseasein place. Further action needs to be initiated on the socialdeterminants of the illness. These social determinants are rankedamong the risk factors for tuberculosis. For instance, poor aerationand congestion in homes, workplaces, and societies add to thepossibility of uninfected persons being rendered to TB infection(Dyer, 2012). The governments should initiate programs in communitieswith the aim of reducing poverty, malnutrition, and hunger so as tolessen the susceptibility of spreading of the infection. Persons withtuberculosis signs like an unrelenting cough, repeatedly facesignificant societal and fiscal obstacles that hold up them to get intouch with health structures. Where proper analysis may be made, aswell as impenetrability in transport to health amenities, the frightof stigmatization if they look for a tuberculosis diagnosis and shortof communal support to ask for care when they become sick (Young,2014).

Epidemiologicaltriad is primarily an instrument that is composed of an agent, hostand the surrounding that is used to elaborate the spread of theillness in a given community. The emphasis is on pointing the pointsof intrusion so has to stop its transmission and lead epidemiologicresearchers. In this case, our agent of concern is Mycobacteriumtuberculosis an acidic speedy aerobic rod that replicates bit by bitand is oversensitive to high temperature and ultraviolet illumination(Young, 2014). The bacterium is transmitted to human beings (host) asthe result of respiratory contact in congregations. Mycobacteriumtuberculosis has a high prevalence in persons suffering from diabetesmellitus, HIV, and cancer because their immune systems are weakened.Environmental factors also have detrimental effects of tuberculosison organisms. Homelessness, congested accommodation, and imprisonmentamongst others are the environmental factors that increase thesusceptibility of human beings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Theconcentration of the bacterium in the atmosphere also states thelikely threat of acquiring TB (Wells &amp Long, 2013).

Governmentadministration should initiate programs that see nurses get propertraining that ensures they oversee the compilation, study, andinterpretation of statistics. Such programs are supposed to bemethodical and ongoing. Information collected will facilitate variousagencies in charge of tuberculosis to integrate appropriate programsthat control and prevent the spread of the disease (Wells &amp Long,2013). Public health scrutiny is an important instrument toapproximate the health status and performance of the populaceadministered by offices of health and finance. Community nurses playa vital role that directly estimates what is taking place in thecommunity regarding TB, helpful both for gauging the necessity forintercession and for straightforwardly determining the impact of suchinterventions. The reason of supervision is to sanction policy makersto guide and administer more efficiently by offering well-timed,practical proof (Dyer, 2012).

WorldHealth Organization (WHO) under its policy that dictates health forall persons has put in place strict emphasis to curb spread andtreatment of tuberculosis in developing economies. WHO has initiatedimmunization programs that prevent tuberculosis among othercommunicable diseases. This immunization under its program issupposed to be available to all children who are in need of it (Wells&amp Long, 2013). WHO affirmed tuberculosis a worldwide crisis in1993 and created a TB program that aimed to reduce yearly deathsassociated with the disease from 3 million to about 1.5 million by2002 however, this goal was not achieved. WHO finances various poornations to fight the spread and treatment of the illness. The programis bearing fruits, but also the governments should initiate furthertighter measures (Dyer, 2012).

Thethreat of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the oral healthcaresurroundings is likely low however the cost of contact can beconsiderable. Responsible authorities need to acknowledge thepossible risks associated with work-related exposure, the relevanceof oversight of tuberculosis control and the need for thepost-exposure administration policies for the persons exposed to themycobacterium tuberculosis. A plain, printed tuberculosis infectionorganization procedure is supposed to endorse the significance ofshadowing in the locale and offer for appropriate medical care forpatients with alleged or established tuberculosis disease.

References

Dyer,C. (2012). (1st ed.). Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press.

Wells,H. &amp Long, E. (2013). Thechemistry of tuberculosis(1st ed.). Baltimore: The Williams &amp Wilkins Company.

Young,D. (2014). On the sociology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.,94(6),535-537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2014.10.002